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DOSKEY


Description | Syntax | Parameters | Switches | Related | Notes | Examples | Errorlevels | Availability

Loads the Doskey program into memory. The Doskey program recalls operating system commands and enables you to edit command-lines and create and run macros.

Doskey is a memory-resident program. When installed, Doskey occupies about 3 kilobytes of resident memory.


Syntax

DOSKEY /?

DOSKEY [/REINSTALL] [/BUFSIZE=nnn] [/E[CHO]:[ON|OFF]] [/EXENAME=exename] [/F[ILE]:file | /MACROFILE:file] [/K[EYSIZE]:nn] [/L[INE]:nnn] [/LISTSIZE=size] [/M[ACROS][=exename|=ALL]] [/H[ISTORY]] [/INSERT | /OVERSTRIKE] [macroname=[text]] [/APPEDIT] [/COMMAND] [/PERMANENT] [/SCRSIZE] [/XHISTORY]

To start the Doskey program and use the default settings:

DOSKEY


Parameters
macroname=[text] (v5.0 Win95 NT3.5)
Creates a macro that carries out one or more commands (a Doskey macro). Macroname specifies the name you want to assign to the macro. Text specifies the commands you want to record.

Switches
/? (NTXP)
Display help.
/APPEDIT (Win95)
UNDOCUMENTED Enables command-line history in applications such as DEBUG.EXE.
/BUFSIZE=nnn (v5.0 Win95)
Specifies the size of the buffer in which Doskey stores commands and Doskey macros. The default size is 512 bytes. The minimum buffer size is 256 bytes. Beginning with v7.00 BUFSIZE can be abbreviated as B.
/COMMAND (Win95)
UNDOCUMENTED unknown.
/E[CHO]:[ON|OFF] (v7.00 Win95)
Enables/disables echo of macro expansions. The default is: ON.
/EXENAME=exename (NT3.5)
Specify an executable other than cmd.exe.
/F[ILE]:file (v7.00 Win95)
/MACROFILE:file (NT3.5)
Specifies a file containing a list of macros.
/H[ISTORY] (v5.0 Win95 NT3.5)
Displays a list of all commands stored in memory. You can use a redirection symbol (>) with the /HISTORY switch to redirect the list to a file.
/INSERT | ( /OVERSTRIKE v5.0 NT3.5)
/I[NSERT] | /O[VERSTRIKE] (v7.00 Win95)
Specifies whether new text you type is to replace old text. If you use the /INSERT switch, new text that you type on a line is inserted into old text (as if you had pressed the INSERT key). If you use the /OVERSTRIKE switch, new text replaces old text. The default setting is: /OVERSTRIKE.
/K[EYSIZE]:nn (v7.00 Win95)
Specifies the size of the keyboard type-ahead buffer. The default size is 15 bytes.
/L[INE]:nnn (v7.00 Win95)
Sets maximum size of the line edit buffer. The default size is 128 bytes.
/LISTSIZE=size (NT3.5)
Limit the number of commands remembered by the buffer.
/M[ACROS] (v5.0 Win95 NT3.5)
Displays a list of all Doskey macros. You can use a redirection symbol (>) with the /MACROS switch to redirect the list to a file.
/MACROS:ALL (NT3.5)
Display all Doskey macros for all executables.
/MACROS:exename (NT3.5)
Display all Doskey macros for the given executable.
/PERMANENT (Win95)
UNDOCUMENTED unknown.
/REINSTALL (v5.0 NT3.5)
/R[EINSTALL] (v7.00 Win95)
Installs a new copy of the Doskey program, even if one is already installed. In the latter case, the /REINSTALL switch also clears the buffer.
/SCRSIZE (Win95)
UNDOCUMENTED unknown.
/XHISTORY (Win95)
UNDOCUMENTED unknown.

Related

Equivalent Linux BASH commands:
m4 - Macro processor.
history - Command history.


Notes
Recalling a command

To recall a command, you can use any of the keys after loading DOSKEY into memory:

UP ARROW
Recalls the operating system command you used before the one displayed.
DOWN ARROW
Recalls the operating system command you used after the one displayed.
PAGE UP
Recalls the oldest operating system command you used in the current session.
PAGE DOWN
Recalls the most recent operating system command you used.

Editing the command-line

With the Doskey program, you can edit the current command-line. The list describes the Doskey editing keys and their functions:

LEFT ARROW
Moves the cursor back one character.
RIGHT ARROW
Moves the cursor forward one character.
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Moves the cursor back one word.
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Moves the cursor forward one word.
HOME
Moves the cursor to the beginning of the line.
END
Moves the cursor to the end of the line.
ESC
Clears the command from the display.
F1
Copies one character from the template to the operating system command-line. (The template is a memory buffer that holds the last command you typed.)
F2
Searches forward in the template for the next key you type after pressing F2. Doskey inserts the text from the template up to but not including the character you specify.
F3
Copies the remainder of the template to the command-line. Doskey begins copying characters from the position in the template that corresponds to the position indicated by the cursor on the command-line.
F4
Deletes characters, beginning with the current character position, up to a character you specify. To use this editing key, press F4 and type a character. Doskey deletes up to, but not including, that character.
F5
Copies the current command into the template and clears the command-line.
F6
Places an end-of-file character (CTRL+Z) at the current position on the command-line.
F7
Displays all commands stored in memory, with their associated numbers. Doskey assigns these numbers sequentially, beginning with 1 for the first (oldest) command stored in memory.
ALT+F7
Deletes (clears) all commands stored in memory.
F8
Searches memory for a command that you want Doskey to display. To use this editing key, type the first character, or the first few characters, of the command you want Doskey to search for and then press F8. Doskey displays the most recent command that begins with the text you typed. Press F8 repeatedly to cycle through all the commands that start with the characters you specified.
F9
Prompts you for a command number and displays the command associated with the number you specify. To display all the numbers and their associated commands, press F7.
ALT+F10
Deletes (clears) all macro definitions.

Specifying a default insert mode

If you press the INSERT key, you can type text on the Doskey command-line in the middle of old text without replacing the old text. However, once you press ENTER, Doskey returns your keyboard to replace mode. You must press INSERT again to return to insert mode.

The /INSERT switch puts your keyboard in insert mode each time you press ENTER. Your keyboard effectively remains in insert mode until you use the /OVERSTRIKE switch. You can temporarily return to replace mode by pressing the INSERT key; but once you press ENTER, Doskey returns your keyboard to insert mode.

The cursor changes shape when you use the INSERT key to change from one mode to the other.


Creating a macro

You can use the Doskey program to create macros that carry out one or more operating system commands.

You can use special characters to control command operations when defining a macro:

$G or $g
Redirects output. Use either of these special characters to send output to a device or a file instead of to the screen. This character is equivalent to the redirection symbol for output (>).
$G$G or $g$g
Appends output to the end of a file. Use either of these special double characters to append output to an existing file rather than replace the data in the file. These double characters are equivalent to the "append" redirection symbol for output (>>).
$L or $l
Redirects input. Use either of these special characters to read input from a device or a file instead of from the keyboard. This character is equivalent to the redirection symbol for input (<).
$B or $b
Sends macro output to a command. Using one of these special characters is equivalent to using the pipe (|) on a command line.
$T or $t
Separates commands. Use either of these special characters to separate commands when you are creating macros or typing commands on the Doskey command-line.
$$
Specifies the dollar-sign character ($).
$1 through $9
Represents any command-line information you want to specify when you run the macro. The special characters $1 through $9 are batch parameters, which make it possible for you to use different data on the command-line each time you run the macro. The $1 character in a DOSKEY command is similar to the %1 character in a batch program.
$*
Represents all the command-line information you want to specify when you type the macro name. The special character $* is a replaceable parameter that is similar to the batch parameters $1 through $9, with one important difference. Here, everything you type on the command-line after the macro name is substituted for the $* in the macro.

For example, to create a macro that performs a quick and unconditional format of a disk, type:

    DOSKEY qf=format $1 /q /u

For information about quick and unconditional formatting, see the FORMAT command.

You can use the DOSKEY command in a batch program to create a macro.


Running a macro

To run a macro, type the macro name starting at the first position on the command-line. If the macro was defined with $* or any of the batch parameters $1 through $9, use a space to separate parameters.

You could run the QF macro created in the previous example to format a disk in drive A quickly and unconditionally. To do so, you would type:

    qf a:

You cannot run a macro from a batch program.


Creating a macro with the same name as an DOS command

You might want to create a macro that has the same name as an operating system command. This can be useful, for example, if you always use a certain command with specific switches. To specify whether you want to run the macro or the operating system command, The guidelines:


Deleting a macro

To delete a macro, type:

    DOSKEY macroname=

Examples

The /MACROS and /HISTORY switches are useful for creating batch programs to save macros and commands. For example, to create a batch program named MACINIT.BAT that includes all Doskey macros, type:

    DOSKEY /MACROS > macinit.bat

To use the MACINIT.BAT file, edit it to include the DOSKEY command at the beginning of each macro line.

To create a batch program named TMP.BAT that contains recently used commands, type:

    DOSKEY /HISTORY > tmp.bat

To define a macro with multiple commands, use $T to separate commands:

    DOSKEY tx=cd\temp$tdir/w $*

In the preceding example, the TX macro changes the current directory to TEMP and then displays a directory listing, using the wide display format. You can use $* at the end of the macro to append other switches to the DIR command when you run TX.

This macro uses a batch parameter for a new directory name. The macro first creates a new directory and then changes to it from the current directory.

    DOSKEY mc=md $1$tcd $1

To use the preceding macro to create and change to a directory named BOOKS, type:

    mc books

To create a macro that uses batch parameters for moving a file or group of files, type:

    DOSKEY mv=copy $1 $2 $t del $1

To create a macro that causes the MEM command to pause after each screen, type:

    DOSKEY mem=mem $* /p

Errorlevels

none.


Availability
External
DOS
v5.0 v5.0A v5.00.02 v5.001A v5.01 v5.02 v6.0 v6.10 v6.2 v6.21 v6.22 v6.23 v7.00 v7.0R1 v7.10 v8.00
Windows
Win95 Win98 WinME
Windows NT
NT3.5 NT4 NT2000 NTXP NT2003